United Irishman Nicholas Gray: Mississippi Territory "Believe me Sir, I fear no man" [Part -2]

                                        Mississippi became a state on December 10, 1817  [Enchanted Learning]                                           

The Mississippi Territory with its rich soil for growing cotton was a complex area with the scourge of Slavery and Indian Treaties.  Before Mississippi was a Territory, settlers acquired their land from France, Great Britain, and Spain.   When Mississippi became a United States Territory, there were many disputes over the earlier land claims.  In 1815, Nicholas Gray, as Land Register,  states  " I was myself Crier and Auctioneer Also Lawyer, Judge and Register."  Gray was register of the Land Office West of Pearl  located in Washington, the capital of the Mississippi Territory, near Natchez, MS. Immigrants coming into the Mississippi Territory would have very few of the conveniences or comforts of the civilized world they left behind. They were willing to risk everything to obtain a piece of rich soil that would be ideal for growing cotton.  The Mississippi Territory became the state of Mississippi on December 10, 1817. 
 
Meigs arranged for a sale of public lands in Washington in October 1815. On the appointed day the village was overflowing with men interested in the land business. The crowd demanded that Nicholas Gray, the recently arrived register, permit private entries of lands before the formal close of the public sale. The inexperienced register vacillated, unsure of himself and uncertain where to turn for advice, and finally consented. Gray’s conduct of the sale provoked a storm of protest and many charges against his official conduct.” [18]
  
 Lewis Sewall was the register of the Land Office at St Stephens East of Pearl River.  Lewis Sewall, like Nicholas Gray, also encountered large unruly crowds at the public land auctions with little personal protection. Sewall also had charges brought against him. Some malicious Statements would probably be made against me to the Government for the double purpose of depriving me of my office and obtaining it for some of the friends of those making the Statements. In a letter from Lewis Sewall to Josiah Meigs dated Dec 8th, 1815  "Sir,  Having received a letter from the Surveyor General an extract from which you will observe below combined with some apprehensions of my own that disturbances might arise during the Land Sales I thought it prudent to call on the Marshal of the Territory for the purpose of keeping order and preventing any interruption. The land for Sale is occupied by intruders who threaten the assassination any person who will dare to bid for the lands those Intruders occupy. As the Sales approach I conceived it would be prudent to Call on the Marshal." [19]
Signed by  Lewis Sewall 
In a letter dated December 4, 1815 from Josiah Meigs to Nicholas Gray. Meigs tells Gray  " You did right to refuse to the Malcontents you mention permission to alter their purchases. You will take time for forwarding your returns of public sales sufficient to have them made out neatly and correctly.  My last letter informed you that clerk hire could not be allowed neither can office rent or repairs of your office. So soon as a copy of the land laws can be procured it shall be sent to you in the mean time you can have access to the copy in the Receivers office Nearly the whole Edition was burnt by the British." [The copy of the land laws were destroyed by the British during the War of 1812] Josiah Meigs [20]
JOSIAH MEIGS TO NICHOLAS GRAY - GENERAL LAND OFFICE  Dec 6th, 1815,  SIR "Representations have been made to me that lands have been sold by you at private sale pending the late public sales & before they closed that by this procedure some persons will be ruined and others materially injured the authors of these representations do not charge you with intentional error but are persuaded those private sales were illegal.  That I may form a correct opinion upon this subject I have to request that you will immediately make me acquainted with all the circumstances that if you have unwittingly erred and I am satisfied you have not willingly,  a remedy may be pointed out to relieve the parties injured." Josiah Meigs [21]
Robert Williams the former governor of the Mississippi Territory was the main adversary of Nicholas Gray.  The resentment between the two men led to a knife fight in Grays office on March 5, 1816. " In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson appointed Williams to the federal commission empowered to determine the legitimacy of land claims in the recently acquired  Mississippi Territory.''[22]   " Robert Williams, a prominent congressman from North Carolina, was appointed governor of the Mississippi Territory in 1805 by President Thomas Jefferson. Williams arrived  in the town of Washington, six miles northeast of Natchez, on January 26, 1805. At this time he  took up his duties as the new governor.  Governor Williams was several times absent from his duties. He spent most of his time back home in North Carolina. His administration was filled with conflicts over land claims, producing a constant state of turmoil. Governor Williams became exceedingly unpopular. This culminated in his resignation on March 5, 1809." [23]   "After leaving office, Williams lived in Mississippi and North Carolina and operated  plantations, he had served during the War of 1812  as adjutant general of the North Carolina militia. " [24] 
Nicholas Gray to Josiah Meigs on March 7, 1816, describes a conflict between himself and Robert Williams former governor of the Mississippi Territory. "The day before yesterday I was assaulted in my Office by the said Mr Williams whose hopes of injuring me had been somewhat damped as he has been defeated in his purpose of obtaining testimony upon those charges exhibited.  Mr Williams attended by his partner a Mr Andrews & his brother in Law entered the office and interrupted the public business so much that I found it necessary to turn him out he however returned upon the door being opened for his hat and after striking at me with his hand he drew a dagger from his person not having had time to take it from its sheath he struck me repeatedly with it in the breast & until it was struck from his hand.  I however succeeded in turning him out a second time I must sir apologize to you for taking up your time with these details.  I merely do it for the purpose of shewing the malignity of this Williams the head of a desperate gang of Villains here.  You will please return the application as I have taken it from the file of the office Accept Sir the assurance of my high respect NICHOLAS GRAY" [25]
In the following letter Nicholas Gray, is describing what took place at the land auction on October 6, 1815 and that he did not have a  Copy of the Laws.  Gray states Mr. Robert Williams or his friends had a fair opportunity of purchasing  land on the first day of the Sale.  Gray reports that every man appeared to be only waiting for opportunity to help himself to his neighbours settlement.    Surveyor General Thomas Freeman, an Irish immigrant, advises Gray to follow the advice of the more experienced Receiver of Public Monies, Mr Parke Walton. He had been a clerk in the Washington land office from 1805 until his appointment as receiver in 1810. Parke Walton had observed the land business in the Mississippi Territory for several years. Thomas Freeman came to America in 1774, and caught the attention of master surveyor George Washington and Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton.  Gray writes to Meigs  "Believe me Sir, I fear no man" 
 Nicholas Gray to Josiah Meigs GLO Washington Reg -  Land Office West of PEARL RIVER 30th December 1815  SIR  "I had the honor to receive your letter  requiring from me all the circumstances relating to the last public Sales here Your Order Sir I shall not loose a moment in obeying Our Sales did commence as I am informed in the usual manner on the 6 October.  A selection was then made of Townships in Wilkinson County as these were likely to sell best there being most people from that part of the territory present and thus were continued until the 24th of the month when the clamour was so great to enter lands which had been offered at auction that the Receiver and myself thought it wisest to gratify them having come from a distance and complaining of the expense of waiting more especially as the practice had been adopted in other Land offices there then did not appear to be a single individual dissatisfied all appeared to be pleased and expressed themselves so publicly.  I must confess Sir,  that upon the opening of those Sales I was ignorant of any Law which precluded the private Sale of Lands after they had once been offered at Auction nor was I made acquainted with it until the last day of their continuance when an altercation arose in my office between a Lawyer Williams and the Receiver of public monies with respect to a tract of land which had been forfeited by Williams.  Not being in possession of a Copy of the Laws as I have before informed you Sir I acted according to what I conceived to be their provisions and the advice of those conversant in them. Should you take the trouble of referring to the Clause you will find that its expression is ambiguous and that an option is left which may be readily misunderstood. Mr Williams or his friends had a fair opportunity of purchasing on the first day of the Sale.  Immediately prior to those Sales I communicated my fears lest any thing unpleasant should occur during their continuance owing to my inexperience in such duty to the Surveyor General Thomas Freeman Esq. he recommended me to be governed wholly by the Receiver of Public Monies in all cases where I wanted advice as He Mr Parke Walton had been in a great measure raised and had great experience in the duties of the Office this advice I strictly followed during the Sales and in two or three instances was induced to acquiesce in his opinion though contrary to my own Judgment. I had I confess a letter written and prepared to make you acquainted with what you now demand of me but as the Receiver informed me the practice was common and not objected to by the Treasury or Contrary to the Laws and by so continuing to sell by private Sale during the public Sales we had to all appearance gratified all concerned I was induced to withhold my letter I solemnly declare I know of but one person who has been injured by those sales.  When the forfeitures were offered for sale there seemed to be a total want of enterprise amongst the buyers who made it a point of honor not to purchase but the feeling was wholly forgotten the next day every man appeared to be only waiting for opportunity to help himself to his neighbours settlement.  Mr. Williams has pledged himself to nullify all my sales I feel gratified Sir that you have required of me this Statement officially but should be more pleased if you would appoint two Gentlemen impartial to examine the books Maps and all the documents in my Office before whom I shall display all and acquaint them with my Conduct since the commencement of my duties here for believe me Sir, I fear no Man nor any representation founded in jealousy and disappointment."  I am Sir with much respect your most ob sr NICHOLAS GRAY [26]
In a letter dated  January 23rd, 1816,  Josiah Meigs describes to Nicholas Gray the charges against him.  Your letter of the 30th was received this day and by the mail a letter exhibiting certain charges against you for misconduct as Register Annexed you have a copy of the said charges seven in number.  That due attention will be paid to proofs of his assertions if he furnishes such proofs.  I regret exceedingly that you have not paid more attention to the laws regulating the sales of public lands. Although you might not have found in your office the volume of land laws sent to your predecessor yet surely you might have had the use of those sent to the Receiver and Surveyor General. Exclusive of the injunctions of the laws it certainly is more convenient to close a public sale and afterwards receive applications for private purchase than to attend to public and private purchasers alternately besides if there had been no positive instructions on the subject in the laws the former course would have sheltered you from any imputation or suspicion of favouritism and given to parties desirous of having the same tracts an opportunity of deciding by lot who should have the preference.  In the case where you inadvertently sold at private sale a tract which had not been offered at public sale you acted correctly in informing the party that his purchase was illegal. Josiah Meigs [27]
To James Madison from Josiah Meigs, 13 February 1816
From Josiah Meigs

City of Washington February 13, 1816.

Sir

The late Proclamation relative to Intruders on the Public Lands1 having apparently caused a considerable excitement, I presume it not improper to communicate the inclosed Extract from a Private Letter received this day from Colonel Nicholas Gray, Register of the Land-Office at Washington. Mip.p.i. Territory, West of Pearl River. I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours.

Josiah Meigs.

Land-Office, West of Pearl River. 22. January. 1816.

Our Sales had begun to slacken, until the President’s Proclamation appeared, and had general circulation: this day I have sold 2782 Acres, and expect to-morrow to sell more.

Nicholas Gray.

Josiah Meigs” [28]
Thomas Freeman, an Irishman, was the Surveyor-General for the Southern District of the Mississippi Territory, stationed in Washington, the capital of the Mississippi Territory.  In the following letter Josiah Meigs, agrees with Thomas Freeman, statement about Nicholas Gray, " that I agree with you entirely that if any errors have been made in the sales by the register  [Nicholas Gray] that they arose from the pressure of business and his inexperience in it."
JOSIAH MEIGS TO THOMAS FREEMAN GLO  GENERAL LAND OFFICE 8th April 1816  SIR Your letter of 4th and 27 with a Sketch of your plan for surveying part of the lands acquired by General Jacksons treaty has been received and the plan is approved the President. Where false returns have been made by surveyors and the fraud is discovered patents will not issue for more than the quantity confirmed by the Commissioners.  Your nomination of Charles De France and William Brown as District surveyors is approved.  The township maps which you ask for will be sent by this mail to be corrected, I agree with you entirely that if any errors have been made in the sales by the register  [Nicholas Gray] that they arose from the pressure of business and his inexperience in it.  I trust that by the appointment of District surveyors and your attention that the part of the district which you found in confusion will soon be reduced into order and the frauds which may have been committed detected. [29]
In the letter below Nicholas Gray reports to Brig. General Parker that General Andrew Jackson is in good health. Malcolm J. Rohrbough in his book the "The Land Office Business" writes  "Andrew Jackson understood frontier politics, and he and his advisers readily grasped the part that the land business might play in the birth and growth of an aspiring political party."  Gray is also interested in his repayment of money spent to help Lt. Dumas.
Nicholas Gray writes on April 29, 1816  from Washington, Mississippi Territory  " General Jackson was through here on the 25th, on his way to Nashville from New Orleans in good health."  [General Andrew Jackson was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837]  In this same letter to  Brig. General Parker Adjacent and Inspector General, " I take the liberty to enter to you an account of Lieut. Dumas of the US Corp of Engineers who was detained  here by sickness. Also the letter of General Swift lately received from the Lieut. Dumas himself. I trust those documents may be found by the proper office sufficiently authorization to order my payment. I brought him here from Natchez. There was not any doctor of the Army here and Doctor Cox was employed whose bill I paid at the request of the Lieutenant in whose hands it remains. In a communication to Mr. Meigs the commisioner of the General Land Office - I enclosed a letter to you. If agreeable an order to the Rec of public monies to repay me would be very acceptable just now."  Nicholas Gray Register Land Office West of Pearl River [30]
 
 
Gray to Meigs on May 24, 1816.  "I enclose to you a list of forfeited preemptions which have been sold .  Should these tracts be advertised for Sale I have no doubt of the revival of old animosities and troubles. Which have now all subsided be that as it may I am at all times ready to do my duty when you give the order." [31]
Letter from Nicholas Gray to Josiah Meigs dated June 7, 1816.  " I take the liberty of enclosing the News paper in which the presentment from the Grand Jury of Amite County is inserted it has been much curtailed since I had my information and is somewhat different from what I wrote you about it. Mr Ware our Secretary of the Territory acting as Governor has refused to shew it any Countenance and sent back the communication made to him with a sharp remonstrance.  It would be extremely grateful to my feeling and of my few friends here if your approbation of my conduct could in some shape be published so as to give confidence and for the short time I remain to prepare my departure in peace."  Nicholas Gray [32]
Nicholas Gray to Josiah Meigs July 15, 1816,  SIR,  "I have the honor to enclose you my returns of Lands applied for Monies entered and cancelled  receipts for the month of June last. The law you enclosed me in letter of 30th April,  relative to Settlers I have  inserted in the News papers of Natchez immediately together with a Notice from myself there are but Seven townships in this district which have not been already offered for Sale these are nearly covered with Claims.  I hope my conduct will meet your approbation. The demand for lands since the 1st,  July seems as great as ever all payments are made in the Mississippi Stock."  Nicholas Gray [33]
 In 1816 a notice was printed in the Niles Weekly Register, published in Baltimore, that Colonel Nicholas Gray, after having consulted with the governor of the Mississippi Territory, was authorized to invite any number of industrious emigrants into that Country where they would be provided with lands, rent free, for three years and with cattle and corn at the usual rates".[34]
Michael Durey in his book "Transatlantic Radicals" writes that the offer of land in the Mississippi Territory was   "One scheme to help disperse the Irish that came from the Wexford rebel Nicholas Gray,  to Irishmen willing to move so far from the eastern seaboard."  "Nicholas Gray denies showing favor to Irish buyers and states no sales took place, but at the same time it would give me pleasure to sell a good piece of land to an Irishman." [35]
Washington, Mississippi Territory from Nicholas Gray
Brig General Parker,  August 2, 1816,  Dear Sir,  "I take the liberty of enclosing to you, at the request of Lieut. Dumas  his letter for Mr. Tucker with a duplicate draft on certificate and one to me to show that I have not yet been paid, but if he had it not in his power. I have no right to complain - If Sir, it  could be so managed that the money the Lieut. owes me could be separated  [as you will see his intention is to repay me out of this] it would benefit me most particularly. The Lieut. had his pocket picked at his boarding house in New Orleans. I believe the very day he received the draft. If I knew,  Dr Sir, in what manner I could convey my thanks to you for your many acts of kindness, I should feel grateful.  you will do me a favor, in addition,  by asking Col Watson whether he has received my last letter enclosing his money."  Believe me Dr. Sir sincerely,  Nicholas Gray [36]
 Nicholas Gray writes to Josiah Meigs on Sep 10, 1816.  "With respect Sir to the latter part of your letter of the 8th_No lands were offered for Sale at the Auction referred to but such as had been sold five years & some months over prior to their being advertised and being doubtful about the propriety of employing a Crier at the Auction not knowing if payment would be allowed one.  I was myself Crier and Auctioneer Also Lawyer Judge and Register.  My returns for August were ready to be transmitted when your letter of the 5th o Arrived all were obliged to be new modelled I hope to send them off Sir in another week. The demand for lands is so great I have not time within office hours to attend to my returns or books."  I am Sir very respectfully your most ob NICHOLAS GRAY Register." [37]  The land sold in 1814-15 was 2,833 20 acres for the amount of 5,668 40 dollar's. In 1816-17 there was 175,609 37 acres sold for the amount of 352,213.06 dollar's, this was a substantial increase in just one year. 
 Lt. Dumas, New Orleans, Oct 14, 1816  to Brig.  General Parker. War Department
Sir,   "I am advised by Colonel Gray to inform you I have the draft of 58.80 on the cashier of the Louisiana bank and  500 the amount of warrant signed by the Secretary of War in my behalf, was found and paid to me a few days after you were informed that I had lost it. The cashier of the Louisiana bank promised me that he would without delay this business to the War Department."  With great consideration I have the honor. Sir Your Obedient Servant  Lt. Dumas  [38]
Nicholas Gray writes to Josiah Meigs Esque Commissioner General Land Office on Oct 18th, 1816. SIR  "I received your letter of the 23 September 20 last in which you speak of an anonymous letter addressed to the President of the United States denouncing me and the Receiver as Speculators & Peculators I am not Sir at a great loss to guess the Author of the letter from its phraseology and vulgarity of style as relates to the part quoted I set it down as the production of the Surveyors Clerk Ludlow a poor creature. The birth of the Registers kind fate took date on the day he recorded one only plat of Land which was but a few days since and he now already boasts of retiring in and Splendor he blows the fire that burns him.  Believe me Sir I am alike a Stranger to acts of dishonor amongst which I class those of dishonesty as I am to Ease and splendor neither have I recorded for myself a Single acre or pole of land since I arrived in the United States much less in this Territory. A Nephew of a Colonel Jno Steele who resides near Natchez offered me some land about 70 acres on a credit of 5 years which I would have purchased and erected Baths & a Tan Yard on as there is a Valuable spring on it and the only one near Natchez's but I could not get a partner and I was too poor to commence it myself. I have no connection with the Receiver neither do I know any thing about him or of him except as Receiver of public Monies." signed  Nicholas Gray [39]
In the the letter below Nicholas Gray, is interested in a Military appointment and his son Nicholas Jr, would take charge of the Land Office.
A letter from Nicholas Gray to Brig General Parker from  Washington,  Mississippi Territory, December 7, 1816
"I take the liberty of writing a letter for Col Watson by his directions on the Military.  Since the arrival of General Ripley here who visited this place on friday last a report whether will or ill founded how spread, of a War with Spain - it has not originated either with him, or our Governor, and perhaps may be conjecture for people what they would wish should happen - A War with Spain would be extremely popular in this Country - should such be the decision of our government the Commanding General would want an Inspector General and if approved of I should gladly accept of the situation, provided in case of Peace, I might return to my present situation, if this would be granted my son could take charge of this office being every way capable of doing the duties of it  [and my family would not be disturbed]  under the guidance of the Surveyor General who resides here - and if can spare time do me the honor of answer soon."  Accept Dear Sir my sincere esteem Nicholas Gray Rec Land Office  [40]
This letter is to Governor Holmes of the Mississippi Territory from Josiah Meigs on December 23, 1816.  The letter is concerning Nicholas Gray's conduct as Register of the Land Office at Washington, Mississippi Territory.  "Sir Complaints from Several Persons against Mr Gray Register of the Land Office at Washington were received last winter through the agency of one person who has renewed those complaints of late & appears very anxious to have Mr Gray dismissed according to those Representations.  Mr Gray appears in some instances to have misunderstood the Laws relative to Sales of Land & the consequence was offence perhaps injury to some Citizens he is also charged with inattention to business & haughtiness of Demeanor in Office Anonymous letters have been received charging him with having enriched himself at the public expense This I am pretty sure is impossible."  Josiah Meigs [41]

Letter to the editor, defending his conduct as register of the the land  office,  signed and dated: Nicholas Gray, July 5, 1817. [Supplement to the Natchez Intelligencer]  It may be necessary  for me to notice a publication signed by Robert Williams, which appeared in your last paper, address to " The People West of Pearl River". Intending to take no farther notice of any news paper  publication, I will to my friends, and for the information of such of the people of this Land District as have a knowledge of the land laws, and of the registers duty as an Officer of the treasury, the merits of each case separately, as they have appeared as charges. I declare no fees were taken by me for selling public lands. Nicholas Gray states that no illegal sell of land was done by him or his son Nicholas Gray Jr. who was a clerk at his father's land office. My son has undoubtedly every right to purchase Lands - the arrangement of lots he can have no knowledge of, persons who were present at the time of drawing, know the truth of this. I have always had a regular correspondence with the treasury department.  Nicholas Gray also denies showing favor to Irish buyers and states no sales took place, but at the same time he states it would give me pleasure to sell a good piece of land to an Irishman. The first application for forfeited lands was made by Mr. Jeremiah Hunt to Mr. Walton, during the sales in 1815 - it was for a tract on the Mississippi forfeited by Robert Williams, and had been as Mr. Hunt said mortgaged to him. Mr. Walton wrote the application, and Mr. Hunt signed it, upon which a very abusive altercation took place in my office between Williams and Walton. When Williams vowed eternal vengeance against Walton, and said he would at every sale, endeavor to annul the entire of the sales.  There was a plot detected, which was calculated to destroy my reputation - thus my friends and the public, will see the premeditated intention of persecution from the beginning. I defy the proof of any of the charges made by Williams, other than what I have stated. As to the idea of my administration being unpopular, it can have no consideration with me as register of the land office. My guides are the land laws and the instructions from the treasury department - when they are observed no honest man will complain. signed Nicholas Gray [42]    
Nicholas Gray resigned as Register of the Land Office of the United States, west of Pearl River on November 27, 1818. Nicholas Gray Jr. in 1821, was employed by Thomas Freeman, surveyor of the United States south of the State of Tennessee, as a clerk in his office. Nicholas Gray Jr. was nominated by John  Quincy Adams to be Register of the Land Office at Washington, Mississippi on May 9, 1826 and confirmed on May 10, 1826.  Lieutenant Henry Gray of Albany, New York in 1818 was reported by the United States Navy as deceased and that he had left no property. Henry Gray served as Midshipman on the USS Essex during the War of 1812.  Henry was born in Ireland, to United Irishman Nicholas  and  Elinor [Hughes] Gray of Wexford Ireland. Henry was most likely named after his uncle United Irishman Henry Hughes.   Lieutenant Dumas obtained the rank of a Captain on March 31, 1819 and resigned from military service in 1825.  The following is taken from several personal letters written by Nicholas Gray   "The great and good Mr Emmet has released me out of my difficulties and has been a father to us.  Mr. Emmet has been ill but is now quite well, thank providence God preserves him to his amiable family.".
[18] The Land Office Business by Malcolm J. Rohrbough
[19] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[20] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[21] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[22] Wikipedia
[23] The Governors of Mississippi by Cecil L. Sumners
[24] Wikipedia 
[25] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[26] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[27] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[28] National Archives
[29] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[30]  Fold3: Letters Received by The Office of The Adjutant General. 1805 - 1821
[31] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[32] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[33] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[34] Niles Weekly Register-The South in the building of the Nation-Volume 5, page 599
[35] Letter by Nicholas Gray, to The Natchez Intelligencer, July 5, 1817. Early American Imprints.
[36] Fold3: Letters Received by The Office of The Adjutant General. 1805 - 1821
[37] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[38] Fold3: Letters Received by The Office of The Adjutant General. 1805 - 1821
[39] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[40] Fold3: Letters Received by The Office of The Adjutant General. 1805 - 1821
[41] Territorial Papers of the United States by Carter  Volume VI Mississippi
[42] Letter by Nicholas Gray, to The Natchez Intelligencer, July 5, 1817. Early American Imprints.

Views: 64

Tags: Genealogy, History of Ireland, Military History, United States

Comment

You need to be a member of The Wild Geese to add comments!

Join The Wild Geese

The Wild Geese Shop

Get your Wild Geese merch here ... shirts, hats, sweatshirts, mugs, and more at The Wild Geese Shop.

Irish Heritage Partnership

Adverts

Extend your reach with The Wild Geese Irish Heritage Partnership.

Congrats to Our Winners

Videos

  • Add Videos
  • View All

© 2021   Created by Gerry Regan.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service