DOMHNAIGH -- On Oct. 3, 1691, the Treaty of Limerick was signed, ending the Williamite War in Ireland. It has been said that Irish history is something the Irish should never remember and the English should never forget, but the recollection of this treaty is another example of the opposite being true. That the English wish to forget this event is not surprising, it is one of the most disgraceful moments in their long and dishonorable history of persecution of the Irish nation. Patrick Sarsfield and his army had frustrated William of Orange's plan for a short, decisive campaign in Ireland; William was desperate to end those hostilities and send his forces in Ireland to reinforce his army on the continent.
(Right: The Limerick Treaty Stone near the Thomond Bridge. Though the legend of the signing on this rock is probably false, it stands as a monument to that dishonored treaty.)
The terms Baron van Ginckel negotiated in the name of William of Orange reflected the fact that Sarsfield's army was far from militarily defeated. Sarsfield and his men were to be allowed to march out of the city under arms, retaining banners, and all that wished would be transported to the continent at England's expense. In addition, Irish Catholics were promised near-equality with the English occupiers of their home island.
|Photo by Kieron Punch
Part of the walls of King John's Castle in Limerick, where Sarsfield and his men held out. The brickwork in the center tower was done to repair damage from Williamite artillery.
About two weeks after Sarsfield signed the treaty, a French fleet arrived at the mouth of the Shannon. Some urged him to now renounce the treaty and fight on, but he honored his word. It is also quite likely that Ginckel expected his side would honor the word he had pledged in the treaty negotiations, but Ginckel's signature on the treaty would prove worthless. With the Jacobite army safely removed to France, the vindictive Anglo-Irish members of the Irish Parliament felt free to tear up the treaty and pass the infamous Penal Laws in its stead. It was said that this dismayed William of Orange, and perhaps it did, but to his everlasting discredit, he allowed the Penal Laws to stand. These laws ingrained a tradition of religious intolerance in the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy that survives to this day. They forced the native Catholic population of Ireland into well over 100 years of poverty and deprivation, driving most of the best members of every succeeding generation to seek their fortune abroad. They would be known as The Wild Geese and they would prove to be a thorn in England's side. Many thousands of them, including Sarsfield, would find a soldier's grave on hundreds of battlefields across Europe.
LUAIN -- On October 4, 1693, units of the Irish Brigade of France fought in Italy at the battle of Marsaglia. Prince Eugene of Savoy commanded the allies of William of Orange, who opposed them. During the battle Irish dragoons were reported to have … 'overthrown squadrons, sword in hand … ,' but elsewhere on the battlefield, Prince Eugene overran a French line and advanced to the second line, held by Irish regiments.
(Right: From an engraving by Jean Sorieul: Uniforms of the Irish Brigade of France. These red coats were worn throughout the Brigade's history, signifying their support for the Stuart claim to the English crown.)
There Eugene's advance was broken, and his troops were soon put to rout. The impetuous Irish then pursued without orders. Seeing this development, the French commander ordered a general advance, and the allied army broke and ran. Official French reports spoke of the "extreme valor" of the Irish that day. Among the Irish killed in this great victory were Brigadier Francis O'Carroll of the dragoons and Colonel Daniel O'Brien (Viscount Clare). One very young officer of the Irish Brigade who survived the fight was Lieutenant Peter Lacy, whose birth we commemorated in last week's issue.
CÉADAOIN -- On October 6, 1649, Owen Roe O'Neill (left), nephew of Hugh O'Neill and an officer in the Spanish army, died at Cloughoughter Castle on an island in Lough Oughter in County Cavan. Owen is thought to have been born in 1585, probably near Loughgall in County Armagh. He left Ireland as a young man, going to Catholic Spain. Owen would serve in the Spanish army for 40 years. For many years he unsuccessfully urged the Spanish to invade Ireland. Finally, after the Irish rebelled against English rule in 1641, he was allowed to go to Ireland with 300 veterans. On July 8, 1642, Owen arrived at Lough Swilly and was immediately given command of the Irish army then in revolt. O'Neill had been serving in the Spanish army since 1610 and had made a name for himself during his defense of Arras against the French in 1640. Like the Jacobites later in the century, O'Neill would claim to be fighting for the King and legitimate ruler of England. O'Neill defeated the Scottish Parliamentarians at the battle of Benburb on June 5, 1646, but it would be the only major victory for the Irish forces during the revolt. Cromwell and his battle-hardened veterans landed in Dublin in August 1649. He quickly set into motion his plan for the reconquest of the island. O'Neill began marching south to attempt a junction with Ormond's Royalist army in November when he suddenly died. Some say he was poisoned but no evidence supports that.
AOINE -- On October 8, 1862, Irish-born Confederate General Patrick Cleburne commanded a brigade at the battle of Perryville, Kentucky. Cleburne's brigade was part of the army of General Braxton Bragg. Encouraged by Jefferson Davis, Bragg had invaded Kentucky in August. On the 30th, at the battle of Richmond, Cleburne had received a very painful injury when a ball passed through his open mouth and out his left cheek, taking several teeth with it. But less than a month later, the intrepid warrior was back with his command, in time for the crucial battle at Perryville.
(Right: The Battle of Perryville from a contemporary illustration.)
Going in with the second wave of attackers Cleburne's brigade overran Colonel William H. Lytle's Federal brigade. Cleburne's horse, Dixie, was hit by a cannonball and killed. The general sprawled on the ground, but he was quickly up and leading his men on foot, sword in hand. The Confederates had driven a portion of the Federal line back several miles and won the battle, but they were forced to retire the next day in the face of Buell's superior force. Despite being wounded twice more in the battle, including a painful ankle wound, Cleburne performed another valuable service to the Southern cause during Bragg's retreat -- he saved thousands of rifles, cartridges, and other supplies by using stragglers to drag the supply-wagon train to safety.
SATHAIRN -- On Oct. 9, 1779, members of Dillon's and Walsh's Regiments of the Irish Brigade of France took part in the Franco-American assault on Savannah, Georgia, during the final stages of the siege there during the American Revolution. Dillon's regiment was sent to the right of the main assault, but their guides proved to be unreliable and the column went down the wrong path into a swamp.
(Left: "Attack on Savannah" by A. I. Keller (1866 - 1924)
The British had already learned of the assault and the bagpipes of a Highland regiment began playing at daybreak, unnerving the allies since it signaled that surprise was lost. French commander Admiral D'Estaing later said he wanted to call off the attack, but it was too late and the assault went on. As Colonel Bethisy's main attack reached the British breastworks, Dillon's men were still trying to get back to their proper position. Thus, the attacks did not go in together. By the time Dillon's men began their attack, the main force had been driven off. In spite of that their assault actually managed to breach the British fortifications in a few spots. Major Thomas Browne, whose family provided several field marshals in the armies of Russia and Austria, was among the Brigade members killed atop the redoubts. Heavy casualties soon forced the French and Americans to break off the attack. The Brigade suffered more than 40 killed and probably had close to 150 wounded. Among the dead was Captain Bernard O'Neill, a 5th generation officer in Dillon's regiment. Dillon's regiment was the only one of the Brigade units to remain in command of one family for its entire service. Count Arthur Dillon, commander at Savannah, was the grandson of Colonel Arthur Dillon, who brought the regiment into French service in 1690. The Count would later become a victim of the French Revolution; he was guillotined in 1794.
|National Gallery of Ireland
'As low as we now are, change but kings and we will fight it over again with you.'
-- Patrick Sarsfield to an English officer during the Limerick Treaty discussions, criticizing King James' uninspired performance in Ireland, September 1691
"Let your manhood be seen by the push of your pike. Your word is Sancta Maria, and so in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost advance! And give not fire 'till you are within pike-length!"
-- Owen Roe O'Neill to his men at the Battle of Benburb
|Library of Congress
'Picture in your mind, half a mile of open field, fronted by an entrenched enemy behind a breast-high rock wall, their beautiful new flags flying, their bands in full view playing their level loudest. … It was beautiful. It was only a man such as Cleburne who could inspire men to go up against such odds, and win – and he did.
-- W.E. Yeatman of Cleburne's staff discussing the battle of Perryville at a post-war Daughters of the Confederacy dinner for Confederate veterans
October - Deireadh Fomhair
5, 1923 - Philip Berrigan (Activist priest, Virginia, Minn.)
5, 1954 - Bob Geldorf (Musician and fundraiser - Nobel Peace Prize nominee.)
3, 1691 - Surrender of Limerick (Treaty of Limerick signed.)
3, 1750 - Highwayman James MacLaine (McLean) hanged at Tyburn.
4, 1576 - Granuaile (Grace O’Malley) visits Queen Elizabeth.
4, 1693 - Irish Brigade of France fights in the battle of Marsaglia.
5, 1968 - The first clash between civil rights marchers and RUC in Derry.
6, 1649 - Owen Roe O'Neill, nephew of Hugh O'Neill and an officer in the Spanish army, dies at Cloughoughter Castle on an island in Lough Oughter in County Cavan.
6, 1798 - Grattan removed from Irish Privy Council, falsely charged with being a sworn member of United Irishmen.
6, 1891 - Charles Stewart Parnell dies in Brighton.
7, 1594 - Battle of the Biscuits.
7, 1843 - O'Connell's 'monster' Repeal meeting prohibited and canceled.
8, 1862 - Irish-born Confederate Gen. Patrick Cleburne commands a brigade at the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky.
8, 1862 - The Irish 35th Indiana fights at the Battle of Perryville, KY.
9, 1779 - Dillon’s and Walsh’s Regiments of the Irish Brigade of France takes part in a failed assault on Savannah.
9, 1779 - South Carolina hero, Sergeant William Jasper, is killed during the assault on Savannah.
9, 1814 - Irish-born US Navy Capt. Johnston Blakeley and his warship “Wasp” are lost at sea.
9, 1849 - First tenant protection society established at Callan, Co. Kilkenny.