This Week in the History of the Irish: January 3-9

LUAIN -- On January 4, 1781, Irish-born Revolutionary War Gen. James Hogan died in British captivity at Haddrel Point, South Carolina. Hogan (sometimes spelled Hogun) was born in Ireland about 1721, and emigrated to North Carolina about 30 years later. In May 1776, Hogan was appointed a major in the militia of the Edenton and Halifax regions of the Southern state. In November, when North Carolina decided to raise three more regiment for George Washington's Continental Army, James Hogan was appointed colonel of one of them, the 7th North Carolina.

(Left:A drawing of the British siege lines at Charleston in 1780.)

Hogan's regiment fought in Pennsylvania at Brandywine and also at Germantown, where Hogan was cited for "distinguished intrepidity." Hogan was sent back to North Carolina to help recruit four new regiments. He returned to Washington's army in August 1778, and was promoted brigadier general five months later. Hogan served at West Point and as commander of Continental troops in Philadelphia. In November 1779, he was sent south in command of the North Carolina Brigade to the aid of General Charles Lincoln. Lincoln was facing an anticipated British assault at Charleston, South Carolina. The march south, through one of the worst winters ever, was a severe one; Hogan's numbers were reduced by the time he reached Charleston on March 3, 1780. Before the end of the month, British General Clinton's men were besieging the city. The Americans, though outnumbered more than two to one, had a few successes during the siege, one was a trench raid led by Hogan on April 24. But soon they were running low on food and ammunition. At a council of war May 11, the decision was made to surrender. The surrender the following day was one of the worst American defeats of the war -- more than 2,500 men became British prisoners. The British hastily built a prison on Haddrel's Point to hold the prisoners, but the site was incomplete and conditions were harsh. Generals McIntosh, Lincoln and Scott, and other high-ranking officers accepted parole from the British and departed. But generals Moultrie and Hogan refused, preferring to stay with their men. The British were trying to recruit colonial soldiers to serve them in the West Indies. Hogan feared some of his men might weaken if he departed. He did this in spite of flagging health. As winter set in, Hogan's condition worsened. On January 4, 1781, he passed away and was buried near the prison. Like so many other Irish born soldiers before and after him, James Hogan had given his last full measure of devotion to his adopted country.

National Museum of Ireland
The 'Cuba 5.' From the left: Devoy, Charles Underwood O'Connell, Henry Mulleda, Rossa, and John McClure.

MÁIRT -- On Jan. 5, 1871, the British in a general amnesty released 30 Fenian prisoners. Most of these prisoners were men who had either been swept up by the British in 1865, when they suppressed the Fenian paper, The Irish People, taken part in the March 1867 rising, or been rounded up after the 'Smashing of the Van' rescue of Kelly and Deasy in September 1867. The British penal system of that time was brutal under normal circumstances, and the Fenians came in for much harsher treatment than the normal inmate did. Those Fenians still on the outside agitated constantly for the release of their comrades. The man most responsible for the release of 1871 was John 'Amnesty' Nolan, who thus earned his sobriquet. The names of many of the men released by William Gladstone's government are well known to those who have studied the Irish Republican movement. One of them was Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, as steadfast an enemy of English rule in Ireland as any who ever lived. After Rossa's death his body was returned to Ireland for burial, and his funeral in 1915 included the famous eulogy by Patrick Pearse, one of the seminal moments in the renewal of armed struggle for Irish freedom. Another Fenian released that day was John Devoy, who perhaps more than any other man would keep the struggle for Irish freedom alive among Irish exiles in America. The British government released the Fenians on condition that they exile themselves to the country of their choice and not return until their sentences had expired. Many chose to go to Australia, but Rossa, Devoy, John McClure, Henry Mulleda and Charles Underwood O'Connell, who had all been imprisoned together, chose to go to America and shipped together from Liverpool on board the Cuba. The so-called Cuba Five arrived in New York to a hero's welcome from the city's large Irish community and even received a resolution of welcome from the U.S. House of Representatives.

U.S. Air Force photo
Major Thomas McGuire next to his P-38L Pudgy (V) in 1944

DEARDAOIN -- On Jan. 7, 1945 Major Thomas McGuire Jr., the second highest scoring U.S. ace of WWII, and winner of the Medal of Honor, was shot down and killed over the Pacific. McGuire was born in Ridgewood, New Jersey on August 1, 1920. He spent most of his childhood in Florida, where he and his mother moved after his parents were divorced.

McGuire enlisted in the army as a aviation cadet in July 1941 and earned his pilots wings in February 1942. Sent to Alaska, McGuire bristled at the lack of combat and agitated for transfer to a combat squadron. In December he was sent to California to learn to fly the twin-engine P-38 fighter in which he would earn his fame. In March 1943 he shipped out to the Pacific, joining the 49th Fighter Group. One of the veteran combat pilots in the 49th was Richard Bong, who would be the highest scoring U.S. ace of WWII.

In just his second mission, on August 18, McGuire was credited with shooting down three Japanese planes. On his next mission, on the 21st, he shot down two more, making him an ace after just three missions. In October he was shot down but managed to bail out over the ocean and was rescued by a PT boat.

When he took off from his base in the Philippines on Christmas day 1944, he had thirty-one kills. In the next two day he shot down seven enemy planes to bring his total to thirty-eight. He was now only two behind Bong, who had been sent home for a fund raising tour. McGuire was anxious to pass him

On an early morning of January 7th McGuire led a flight of four P-38s over Japanese airbases on Negros Island. While pulling a sharp left turn toward a Japanese fighter his plane stalled and he crashed. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his seven kills in two days in December. McGuire Air Force base in New Jersey is named after him.

To learn more about this WWII hero, read: The Last Great Ace : The Life of Major Thomas B. McGuire, Jr.

Northern Ireland Assembly Library, Stormont
The state funeral of James Craig passes the statue of his political ally, Edward Carson, at Stormont in November, 1940.

AOINE -- On January 8, 1871, James Craig, Viscount Craigavon, Unionist politician, was born in Belfast. Craig was the son of a wealthy distiller. He was educated at private schools. After school he became a stockbroker in Belfast. He served in the Royal Irish Rifles during the Boer War and rose to the rank of captain. He went into politics after the war and was elected MP from East County Down. Craig rose within the ranks of Unionist politicians and was soon second only to Sir Edward Carson. Carson was a strong orator and carried the message of the Unionist in public, while Craig organized the armed Ulster Volunteers in preparation for a possible armed insurrection against implementation of Home Rule. Craig entered the British Army again during World War I as quartermaster-general of the 36th (Ulster) Division and served in France. He was knighted in 1918. Craig succeeded Carson as leader of the Unionists in June 1921 and was the 1st Prime Minister of the six counties following partition. In 1929 he abolished the proportional representation voting system in favor of the straight vote system in order to maintain Unionist control of local governments, even in areas where Nationalists were a clear majority. Craig remained PM of the six-county state until his sudden death at Glencarrig, County Down, on November 24, 1940. During his entire time as PM his policies could be best summed up by his statement in 1934: "We are a Protestant parliament and a Protestant state."

Courtesy of Warflag.com
Flag of Berwick's regiment of the Irish Brigade of France, two battalions of which fought with O'Mahony at Alcoy. Get a t-shirt displaying this flag and others HERE.

SATHAIRN -- On January 9, 1708, elements of the Irish Brigade of France under Daniel O'Mahony helped capture the town of Alcoy in Spain during the War of Spanish Succession. O'Mahony came from a distinguished Munster family. One brother Dermod had been a colonel and another, Daniel, a captain in the Irish army that left Limerick for the continent in 1691. Daniel was also a brother-in-law of another famous officer of the Irish Brigade of France, the Marshal Duke of Berwick. Holding the rank of major, O'Mahony had achieved great fame for his part in the famous defense of Cremona, where the Irish Brigade foiled Prince Eugene's surprise attack on the city in 1702, and he had steadily risen through the ranks. During the War of Spanish Succession, many officers and units of the Irish Brigade served in Spain fighting the Allies' attempt to place Archduke Charles, son of Hapsburg (Austrian) Emperor Leopold I, on the Spanish throne. In the early part of 1707, O'Mahony commanded an unsuccessful attempted to capture the town of Alcoy with a force of about 1,800 men. On January 2, 1708, he arrived at the gates of the city again, but this time he commanded a force of over 6,000, including the Irish battalions of Dillon, Berwick and Bourke. By the 4th, O'Mahony's six guns had breached the walls of Alcoy, but the Allied garrison fought well and repulsed attempts to take it on the 5th and 7th with much loss of life on the Franco-Spanish side. But with no relief in site the garrison's situation was hopeless; O'Mahony accepted the garrison's surrender on the 9th. Daniel O'Mahony was one of the finest commanders of all the Wild Geese. After Alcoy he served in Sicily and then back in Spain again. He was created a Count of Castile and promoted to lieutenant general. One of the Count's sons, James, would also reach the rank of lieutenant general in the Spanish army and the other, Dermod, would be Spain's ambassador to Austria.

National Army Museum
An officer from an Irish regiment of the Spanish army, 1808. The uniform coat would have been sky-blue.

VOICES

'All day long …. Sweeny's Hotel and the approaches to it were the scene of the most lively excitement, caused by the congregation of numerous sympathizers. The green flag was flying from the highest flagstaff on the roof of the hotel.'
        -- The New York Herald describing the excitement created by the arrival of the Cuba Five in New York in January 1871.

'Ours is a Protestant government and I am an Orangeman. I have always said that I am an Orangeman first and a politician and a member of this parliament afterwards.'
        -- James Craig, Viscount Craigavon, Prime Minister of the six counties in 1932.

'He has always been not only brave, but indefatigable, and very pains-taking (sic); his life is, as it were, a continued chain of dangerous combats, of bold attacks, of honourable retreats. If he has mounted himself to the first dignities of the army, he has raised himself to them by degrees; he has passed through all the military grades so as to make himself a master of the respective duties.'
        -- Count Daniel O'Mahony as characterized by his friend the Chevalier de Bellerive.

January - Eanáir

BIRTHS

4, 1581 - James Ussher (Scholar and Archbishop of Armagh - Dublin)
6, 1794 - Frances Ball (Mother Mary Teresa - Founder of the Sisters of Loretto - Dublin)
6, 1898 - Colonel James Fitzmaurice (Aviator - Dublin)
7, 1861 - Louise Guiney (Poet, literary historian - Roxbury, MA.)
8, 1871 - James Craig, Viscount Craigavon (Politician - Belfast)

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

3, 1946 - William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) hung by England.
3, 1966;- Marguerite Higgins, journalist, war correspondent and Pulitzer Prize winner, dies in Washington D.C.
4, 1781 - Irish born U.S. Revolutionary War Gen. James Hogan dies in British captivity.
4, 1792 - First issue of Northern Star, organ of United Irishmen published in Belfast
4, 1925 - Cork native Nellie Cashman, gold miner, and pioneer of the American West, dies of pneumonia in Victoria, British Columbia.
4, 1969 - Civil rights marchers attacked at Burntollet Bridge, NI.
5, 1777 – Irish-born Stephen Moylan is appointed colonel in the Continental Army.
5, 1871
- 30 Fenian prisoners are released by the British in a general amnesty.
5, 1885 - Hugh O'Brien is sworn in as Boston first Irish mayor.
6, 1562 - Shane O'Neill submits to Queen Elizabeth, but rebels again within months.
6, 1946 - Nazi broadcaster William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) is executed by England.
6, 1968 – Patrick Henry Brady (Medal of Honor) rescues 51 soldiers under heavy enemy fire near Chu Lai, Republic of Vietnam.
7, 1922 - Anglo-Irish treaty approved by Dail Eireann.
7, 1945 - Major Thomas McGuire, the second highest scoring US ace of WWII, is shot down and killed over the Pacific.
8, 1873 - Home Rule Confederation of Great Britain founded.
9, 1708 - The Irish Brigade of France under Count O'Mahony helps capture the town of Alcoy in Spain.
9, 1783 - David Griffith, a Dublin native and general in the army of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, dies in Piacenza, Italy.

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Tags: Diaspora History, History of Ireland, Military History, On This Day, United States

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