This Week in the History of the Irish: March 8 - March 14

Anne Bonny

DEARDAOIN -- On March 8, 1700, or perhaps a year or two earlier, Anne Bonny (née Cormac), destined to become arguably the most famous woman pirate in history, was born in County Cork, Ireland. Anne was rumored to be the product of a liaison between her mother, Mary Brennan, and lawyer William Cormac, by whom Mary was employed as a housemaid. It was also rumored (nearly everything known about Anne's life is a rumor) that Cormac's wife learned of the affair and drove Mary from the house. Mary and Anne then traveled to the new world, settling in Charleston, South Carolina. The teenage Anne ran off with a soon to be pirate by the name of James Bonny. She and James traveled to the pirate haven of New Providence Island in the Bahamas. There Anne had soon dumped her husband, perhaps because he became an informer, and took up with pirate captain "Calico" Jack Rackam. She may have become his lover and had a child with Jack and left it to be raised by others in Cuba. Anne later became very "friendly" with another member of the crew, whom she may have mistaken for a man, but whom she soon discovered was actually Mary Read. It seems quite likely that the two of them became lovers. Though there are few things in Anne's life that are certain, one that seems to be, is that she was a fierce fighter. Perhaps this was a result of her feeling the need to prove herself to the male crew. She and Mary were known to be "fierce hell cats" in battle. Their battling days came to an end on November 16, 1720, when their ship was captured by Captain Jonathan Barnett of the Royal Navy, a former pirate himself. The entire crew was hanged, save Mary and Anne. They were saved when they "pled their bellies," i.e. claimed to be pregnant, which was confirmed by the court's doctor. That both were pregnant seems unlikely, and thus another rumor inserts a friendly doctor here. Anne disappears from history at that point. The various tales have her being hanged a year later, returning home to South Carolina, returning to her husband, settling down on some Caribbean island, owning a pub in the south of England, or living out her days with Mary somewhere in Louisiana. Whichever of the rumors of her life are true, there is no question that she lived a more adventurous life than most women of her time.

DEARDAOIN -- On March 8, 1903, Charles Gavan Duffy, Young Irelander leader, was buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin. Along with Thomas Davis and John Blake Dillon, he founded The Nation in 1842, the journal that was the soul of the Young Ireland movement. In 1855, despairing of Irish politics, he voluntarily emigrated to Australia. There he entered politics and rose to be Prime Minister of the colony of Victoria and was knighted by the Queen. He retired to France in 1880, spending his time writing until his death in Nice on February 9, 1903. His body was returned to Ireland and interred at Glasnevin.

Left to right: Harry Boland, Michael Collins, and Eamon de Valera

LUAIN -- On March 9, 1932, Eamon de Valera formed his first Free State government. Eamon was born on October 14, 1882, in New York City, of an Irish mother from County Limerick and a Spanish father. When his father died in 1885 his mother sent Eamon back to Bruree, County Limerick to be raised as an Irishman from the age of three by his grandmother, Elizabeth Coll.

Following his graduation from college, he taught mathematics at several different colleges. His political activism began through an interest in the Irish language which caused him to join the Gaelic League in 1908, where he also met his future wife, Sinèad Flanagan. De Valera joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913 and rose to become commandant of the 3rd Battalion and adjutant of the Dublin Brigade as well as becoming a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organization that controlled the Irish Volunteers. During the Easter Rising in 1916, he commanded the 3rd Battalion at Boland's Mills and was the last commander in the city to surrender. Though he was sentenced to death, his US birth probably saved his life, as his sentence was commuted to life in prison.

When he was released under a general amnesty in June 1917 he was elected as the Sinn Fein candidate for MP from East Clare, a post he would hold until 1959. De Valera became president of Sinn Fein in October and led Sinn Fein to a huge victory in the 1918 elections. He was arrested by the British as part of their bogus "German Plot" in May 1918 and was in prison when Sinn Fein MPs meet in Dublin and declared themselves an Irish parliament, known as Dàil Éireann. De Valera was broken out of prison by Harry Boland and Michael Collins in February 1919

A trip to the US following his escape designed to help raise funds for the Irish cause from the Irish American community did not go well, as his relations with several US leaders were strained, but money did flow from the US for the Irish cause in spite of his problems. Following the truce that ended the Irish War of Independence in 1921 de Valera made a controversial decision not to be on the committee negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty. His opposition to that treaty led to the tragic Irish Civil War.

Following the defeat of the anti-treaty forces in the Civil War, de Valera founded a new party, Fianna Fáil (The Warriors of Destiny), in March 1926. It would become the dominant Irish Party of the 20th century. In 1932 the party won a majority in the Dáil and formed a government with the Labour Party, putting de Valera in charge. He immediately began a campaign to remove all visible and eventually all actual connections to Great Britain and would continue that process as his party held power over the next 16 years. He would keep Ireland neutral during WWII, and controversially offer condolences to the German Ambassador following Hitler's suicide in 1945.

The process of totally ending Ireland's connections to Great Britain would culminate on April 18, 1949, when Ireland was declared a republic, though not by de Valera, but his successor Taoiseach John Costello after de Valera was voted out of power in 1947. De Valera would be voted back into power in 1951, out in 1954 and in again in 1957 and then would be elected President of Ireland in 1959. He would hold the post until 1973 when he retired. He would pass away on August 29, 1975.

Eamon de Valera was a controversial figure in Irish history, but whether for good or ill, there is no question that he was the towering figure of 20th century Ireland.

CÉADAOIN -- On March 11, 1858, Irish revolutionary Thomas James Clarke was born of Irish parents on the Isle of Wight but the family moved to Dungannon, County Tyrone, shortly after that. His father, James Clarke, was a sergeant in the British Army. Thomas spent part of his early life in South Africa and the United States, as well as Ireland. At 21, living in the United States, he joined the Clan na Gael and was sent to England as part of the Clan's bombing campaign. Living there under the name of Henry Wilson, he was soon arrested and spent 15 torturous years in prison there before being released.

Following his release, he married Kathleen Daly, 21 years his junior. He had met her uncle, John Daly, in Pentonville prison. Thomas lived in the U.S. for a time again working with Clan na Gael under John Devoy, then returned to Ireland and helped reorganize the IRB. In 1915 Clarke and Sean MacDermott established the Military Committee of the IRB to plan what later became the Easter Rising. Its members included Patrick Pearse. Clarke was the first signer of the Proclamation of the Republic. Clarke served in the General Post Office during the Rising and surrendered along with the rest of that garrison on April 29th.

As was the case with the other leaders of the Rising, he was quickly tried in sham military trial and sentenced to death. Thomas Clarke was executed at Kilmainham Jail on May 3, 1916.

CÉADAOIN -- On March 11, 1951, Ulster firebrand and demagogue Ian Paisley (on left in photo with George Bush and Martin McGuinness) formed the first Free Presbyterian Church. Paisley was born on April 6, 1926, in Armagh, County Armagh and lived in the town of Ballymena, County Antrim as a child. His father, James, was a reverend in the Independent Baptist church.

Paisley has been a virulent opponent of the Roman Catholic Church his entire life; he protested putting the British flag at half-mast to mark the death of Pope John XXIII in June 1963. In the late 60s, he helped lead the violent opposition to Catholic civil rights. He was one of the leaders of the movement that destroyed the Sunningdale Agreement in the 70s, the demise of which contributed to 20 more years of horrendous violence in Northern Ireland. True to form, he violently opposes the Good Friday Agreement, the latest and most promising attempt at reconciling the two communities.

His DUP party eventually became the majority Unionist party and he finally relented and entered into a power-sharing government with the republican party he had so long vilified, Sinn Fein, serving as the First Minister of that government. In June 2008 he stepped down as leader of the DUP party and resigned as First Minister. He passed away on September 12, 2014, in Belfast.


"I am sorry to see you here Jack, but if you had fought like a man, you need not be hanged like a dog."         -- Anne Bonny to the imprisoned captain of her ship, and father of her child, "Calico Jack" Rackham.

'This is the beginning, our fight has saved Ireland. The soldiers of tomorrow will finish the task.'
        -- Thomas Clarke, May 1916

I will never sit down with Gerry Adams . . . he'd sit with anyone. He'd sit down with the devil. In fact, Adams does sit down with the devil.
        -- Ian Paisley, February 13, 1997.

March - Márta


8, 1700 (?) - Anne Bonny (née Cormac) (Female pirate - County Cork) 
9, 1913 - Dr. Aidan MacCarthy, (RAF MD and WWII POW – Castletownbere, Co. Cork)
10, 1810 - Sir Samuel Ferguson (Poet - Belfast)
11, 1858 - Thomas James Clarke (Revolutionary - Isle of Wright.)
12, 1700 - George Berkeley (Philosopher and Bishop - Co. Kilkenny)
13, 1914 - Edward Henry "Butch" O'Hare (US Navy Aviator and Medal of Honor winner - St. Louis, MI.)
14, 1894 - William Earle "Moley" Molesworth (WWI Ace, 18 kills - Ireland)


8, 1574 - Captain William Martin lays siege to Granuaile (Grace O'Malley) in Rockfleet castle.
8, 1779 - Don Hugo O'Conor, governor of the Yucatán dies at Quinta de Miraflores, just east of Mérida.
8, 1903 - Charles Gavan Duffy, Young Irelander, buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin.
8 1966 - Nelson's Pillar in Dublin, Ireland, destroyed by a bomb.
9, 1795 - Irish-born Revolutionary War general John Armstrong dies at Carlisle, PA.
9, 1825 - Parliament passses Unlawful Societies act.
9, 1932 - Eamon de Valera forms his first Free State government. 
10, 1653 - Sir Phelim O'Neill, revolutionary, executed by British.
11, 1868 – Irish-born Timothy P. Andrews, US general and veteran of the War of 1812 and Mexican war, dies in Washington DC.
11, 1951 - Ian Paisley forms Free Presbyterian Church.
12 1689 - James II arrives in Ireland.
12, 1798 - Many of Dublin's United Irish leaders arrested.
13, 1592 - Foundation stone of Trinity College is laid by the mayor of Dublin.
14, 1689 – Ulster Protestant force is defeated by Jacobites under Richard Hamilton at the “Break of Dromore,” in Co. Down.
14, 1779 - John O'Flanagan, Col. in the Austrian army, dies in Felsberg.

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Tags: Australia, Irish Freedom Struggle, Military History, On This Day


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