This Week in the History of the Irish: February 21 - February 27

LUAIN -- On February 22, 1886, Conservative Party politician Lord Randolph Churchill, father of Winston Churchill, gave what many consider one of the single most destructive speeches in Irish history, inciting militant loyalists at Ulster Hall in Belfast. Churchill had shown disdain for Ulster Unionists up until then, in private, at least, telling Lord Salisbury, "these foul Ulster Tories have always ruined our party," but as 1886 began he saw an opportunity to exploit their fears for political gain.

(Right: Belfast Central Library - A drawing of Lord Randolph Churchill from the Illustrated London News. Churchill died at age 46.)

He decided that if Prime Minister William Gladstone "went for Home Rule [for Ireland], the Orange Card would be the one to play. Please God may it turn out the ace of trumps and not the two." This quote would lead one to believe he had few real convictions regarding the issue. "Ulster will fight, and Ulster will be right," he proclaimed to a crowd before he even arrived at Ulster Hall on February 22. During his speech, he played on Protestant fears of Dublin "Catholic" rule and encouraged Ulster Protestants to organize, which they did, beginning to form paramilitary drilling units. Churchill achieved a short term political gain by his playing of the Orange Card; but his most lasting legacy is the unfounded fear of Irish Catholics that he helped to implant in the minds of Ulster Protestants, a tragedy for both traditions on the island. Those fears are still evident in the sectarian hatreds of today.

Hulton Deutsch
Roger Casement being led out of Pentonville Prison, where he would later be hanged.

MÁIRT -- On February 23, 1965, Irish patriot Roger Casement's body was returned to Ireland to be reinterred. Casement was born at Sandycove, County Dublin in 1864. He joined the British colonial service and was knighted in 1911 for his work on behalf of African and South American native workers who were being exploited by whites. Leaving the colonial service in 1912, he became involved with Irish nationalism, joining the Irish Volunteers. In 1916, Sir Roger traveled to Germany and arranged German assistance for the Easter Rising. He traveled back to Ireland by submarine, convinced by then that the Rising could not succeed but that he must join his comrades. He was captured at McKenna's Fort soon after landing on the southwest coast. Casement was later tried in England. To lessen the protests over his expected death-sentence the British circulated small parts of his so-called Black Diaries which purported to reveal his alleged homosexual activity while in colonial service. Recent evidence points to a possibility that these diaries were forged by British intelligence to lessen worldwide condemnation of Casement's execution. Sir Roger Casement was hanged at Pentonville Prison on August 3, 1916. In 1965 Casement's body was returned to Ireland, where he was given a funeral on March 1that rivaled that of O'Donovan Rossa. Eamon de Valera, 82 years old and feeling poorly, insisted on attending and gave the graveside oration at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin. Casement had returned to Ireland in 1916 to share his comrades' fate. In 1965, 49 years later, he was finally able to rejoin them one last time.

Colección Hermanas Cantillo O'Leary
Daniel O'Leary, 1818


CÉADAOIN-- On February 24, 1854, Daniel Florence O'Leary, a general in Simon Bolivar's South American army, died in Bogota, Colombia. O'Leary was probably born about 1800 in Cork city, the son of a butter merchant. Little is known of his early life. In 1817, he traveled to London to enlist in a regiment being formed by Henry Wilson. Wilson was recruiting officers and NCOs to go to South America and form a Hussar regiment in service to Simon Bolívar, who would go on to liberate much of South America from Spanish rule. O'Leary sailed for Venezuela with Wilson near the end of 1817, arriving in March 1818. O'Leary first met Bolívar away from the front shortly afterward and apparently Bolívar was impressed with the young Irish officer. In March 1819, O'Leary saw his first action and was promoted to captain. In July, after Bolívar's famous crossing through the Casanare Swamps and over the Andes, O'Leary received a saber wound in the battle of Pantano de Vargas but he quickly recovered and took part in the battle of Boyaca on August 9. Shortly after this, O'Leary became aide de camp to Bolivar. Two years later, after much more fighting, Venezuela was freed. During the next few years, as the fight continued to free the rest of South American from Spanish domination, O'Leary would perform many dangerous missions for "The Liberator," rising ever higher in his esteem. O'Leary continued to serve Bolívar well through the political and military intrigues that followed the freeing of South America from the Spanish. After the death of Bolívar in December 1830, the new Venezuelan government exiled O'Leary to Jamaica. There he wrote extensive memoirs that were later edited by O'Leary's son, Simon Bolívar O'Leary, and published in the 1870s and 80s. Simon was the eldest of six children O'Leary had with his South American wife. In 1833, O'Leary was able to return to Venezuela. He held a number of diplomatic posts for the Venezuelan government for the next 20 years, and on at least two occasions was able to visit his boyhood home of Cork. When O'Leary died in Bogota in 1854, he was buried there in Colombia's capital. The Venezuelans named a plaza after him in Caracas. In 1882, they obtained permission to take Daniel O'Leary's body from Bogota to Caracas, where it was laid to rest in the National Pantheon of Venezuela to lie forever in death next to the man had served so faithfully in life, Don Simon Bolívar.

CÉADAOIN -- On February 24, 1841, John Philip Holland, the father of the modern submarine, was born in Liscannor, Co. Clare. As a boy Holland wished to go to sea but was prevented by bad eyesight. He took vows as a Christian Brother in 1858 and taught in their schools, but he left the order and came to the United States in 1872.

John Philip Holland, father of the modern submarine.


While living in and teaching in Paterson, New Jersey. he began experimenting with the design of small submarines. In 1879 he came to the attention of Irish rebel expatriate John Devoy who financed the building of one of Holland's submarines with money from Clan na Gael. The vessel was dubbed The Fenian Ram and it was hoped that it would one day be used against English vessels along Ireland's coast. This plan never worked out but Holland didn't give up. In 1895 he formed a company to build submarines. Ironically, the British government, his original ship's planned first target, was the first to purchase one of his submarines. The U.S. government soon followed, naming the first ship the USS Holland. Devoy and Clan na Gael's support of Holland, which so advanced submarine-building technology, would still bear fruit against Ireland's nemesis eventually, through the devastating German submarine campaigns of World Wars I and II . John Philip Holland would not live to see it; he died in Newark, New Jersey, on August 12, 1914.

National Library of Ireland
Edward Daly, 1916 martyr, in his Irish Volunteers uniform.


DEARDAOIN -- On February 25, 1891, Edward "Ned" Daly, one of the leaders of the Easter Rising, was born in a home on Frederick Street in Limerick city. Edward's family was staunchly republican. His father and uncle were Fenians. His uncle, John, served 12 years in English prisons. Edward's sister, Kathleen, married Thomas Clarke, another leader of the Easter Rising. Edward joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913 and became captain of one of their companies and then advanced to a battalion command. His unit was charged with holding the Four Courts area during the Rising, which took place in April 1916. Though pressed hard and attacked by superior numbers of British troops, Daly's men managed to hold out until the very end, inflicting heavy casualties. After Patrick Pearse ordered the surrender Saturday evening, Daly was held at Kilmainham Jail. He was given the same quick sham court-martial at Richmond Barracks as the other leaders of the Rising. On the morning of May 4, Edward Daly died for Ireland, shot against a cold damp wall at Kilmainham Jail.

VOICES

"Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right".
        -- Lord Randolph Churchill at an Orange rally in 1886.

'The Navy doesn't like my boats because they have no deck to strut on'

-- John Holland, in the years when he was struggling to convince the U.S. Navy to purchase one of his submarines.

"What a head he has and he's not yet 28!"
        -- Simon Bolívar speaking of Daniel O'Leary

'What a glorious reunion we'll have in Heaven, eh? Sure Katie, I'll give Tom* your love. First thing I'll do. As for me, girls, I'm proud of what I did. Next time, we'll win. I'm only sorry I won't be there to do my bit.'
        -- Edward Daly, during a visit to his cell by his mother and two sisters the night before he was shot. May 4, 1916. *Tom Clarke was Daly's brother-in-law, who was shot earlier that day.

February - Feabhra

BIRTHS

22, 1893 - Peadar O’Donnell (Revolutionary, writer - Meenmore, Co. Donegal.)
24, 1841 - John Holland (Inventor of the submarine - Liscannor, Co. Clare.)
25, 1891 - Edward Daly (Revolutionary - Limerick.)
27, 1735 - Thomas Conway (Soldier in French and U.S. armies, Cloghane, Co. Kerry.)
28, 1884 - Seán Mac Diarmada (Revolutionary - Kiltycolgher, Co. Leitrim.)
28, 1951 - Barry McGuigan (WBA Welterweight champion - Clones, Co. Monaghan.)

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

21, 1945 – For his actions leading his company on Iwo Jima on this day, Marine Capt. Joseph Jeremiah McCarthy is awarded the Medal of Honor
22, 1797 -The last invasion of England: Small French force commanded by Irishman William Tate lands in Wales.
22, 1886 - Lord Randolph Churchill gives memorable speech inciting militant loyalists at Ulster Hall in Belfast.
23, 1965 - Roger Casement's body returned from England to be reinterred at Glasnevin in Dublin.
24, 1692 - The Treaty of Limerick is ratified by William of Orange.
24, 1854 - General Daniel Florence O'Leary, officer in Simon Bolivar's South American army, dies in Bogota, Columbia.
27, 1830 - John Baron O'Brien, colonel in the Austrian army, dies in Austria.
27, 1945 – Gunnery Sgt. William G. Walsh is killed in action on the island of Iwo Jima. He was posthumously award the Medal of Honor.

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Tags: Americas, Irish Freedom Struggle, Military History, On This Day, United States

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