This Week in the History of the Irish: December 31 - January 6

DOMHNAIGH -- On December 31, 1602, Dónall O'Sullivan Beare and his clan began their epic march to Ulster. O'Sullivan had supported Hugh O'Neill in his fight against Elizabethan England's attempts to destroy Gaelic Ireland once and for all. The cause O'Neill and O'Sullivan fought for was probably doomed after O'Neill's defeat at Kinsale in 1601, but the fight went on, nonetheless. In 1602, O'Sullivan and men were besieged in their County Cork stronghold; in the end their only hope was to somehow make their way to Brian O'Rourke in Leitrim and from there join with O'Neill in the north and unite to continue the contest.To do so they would have to fight their way through the English and other Irish clans who had submitted.

(Right: WGT photo by Joe Gannon: Carriganuss Castle, an O'Sullivan castle just outside of Glengarriff.)

On December 31, O'Sullivan and about 1,000 of his clan, more than half of them female dependents of his soldiers, departed from Glengarriff to begin their heroic journey through enemy territory. Throughout the march, they were harassed and attacked by both the English and their Irish allies. Battling the winter elements as well, their numbers dwindled through death from wounds or disease and many more were left behind due to exhaustion, but O'Sullivan never wavered. When O'Sullivan's clan finally reached O'Rourke at Leitrim Castle, only 35 of his followers had arrived safely with him, but his achievement in arriving at all was extraordinary. Like the other Gaelic chieftains, O'Sullivan was eventually forced to leave Ireland for exile on the continent. O'Sullivan settled in Spain and continued to plead with the Spanish government to send another invasion force to Ireland. King Phillip III gave O'Sullivan a knighthood, pension, and the title Earl of Bearhaven, but never that which he desired most, another chance to free his homeland. Many generations of O'Sullivan's family would later achieve prominence in Spain. In 1618, Dónall O'Sullivan Beare was killed in Madrid by John Bathe, an Anglo-Irishman, but the legend of "O'Sullivan's March" lives on.

DOMHNAIGH -- On December 31, 1783, Commodore Thomas Macdonough, hero of the War of 1812, whose family was from Dublin, was born in the Delaware town then known as "The Trap," but now renamed in his honor, "McDonough." Thomas joined the U.S. Navy in 1800 as a midshipman and spent the first years of his naval career fighting pirates, including the famous Barbary Pirates operating out of Tripoli. When the War of 1812 broke out, Macdonough, then a lieutenant, was made the commander of all the Navy's forces on Lake Champlain, an extremely important post due to the threat of British invasion from Canada.

(Left: Commodore Thomas Macdonough by Charles Stuart Gilbert)

The opposing sides built their fleets on the Lake through most of 1813. In August of that year, British General Sir George Prevost began his invasion from Canada. Moving along the western edge of Lake Champlain, he hoped to use the guns of his fleet to help cover his advance. The British army outnumbered the Americans better than two to one, but Pervost needed to use the Lake to supply his army, thus the fleet of Thomas Macdonough became a prime target of the British fleet on Lake Champlain. The two fleets were fairly evenly matched, but the guns of the British ships had an advantage in range. Macdonough came up with a brilliant plan to negate this advantage. He anchored inside Plattsburgh Bay in such a manner that the British couldn't fire at them from long range and had to come around Cumberland Head and approach them head on, presenting their bows to the American guns. From there it became a close-range slugging match, more to the liking of the Americans. On board his flagship, the Saratoga, Macdonough fired the first shot, hitting the Confiance, the flagship of Captain George Downie, commander of the British fleet. Macdonough continued to work the gun through the fierce 2 ½-hour battle. Twice his men were sure he had been killed as he was knocked out and lay on the deck. But twice he rose and returned to action. Finally, with Capt. Downie dead, and their ships devastated, the largest ships of the British fleet struck their colors, and their gunboats ran for home. On land, General Pervost had engaged the American land forces as the British fleet attacked. When it became apparent the American fleet was victorious, Pervost knew that further movement south was futile; he broke off the attack and retreated toward Canada. Thomas MacDonough's fleet had ended the British invasion; it was one of the greatest victories in history of the U.S. Navy. For his enormous contribution to the momentous victory, Congress had a medal was stuck in MacDonough's honor, and New York and Vermont presented him with huge tracks of land. Thomas Macdonough continued his Navy career after the war. On November 10, 1825, he died of consumption aboard ship while commanding the U.S.S. Constitution.

Battle of Stone River, Near Murfreesborough, by Kurz & Allison.

DOMHNAIGH THROUGH MÁIRT -- From December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, Irish-born Confederate Gen. Patrick Cleburne commanded a division at Murfreesboro (Stone's River), Tennessee, site of one of the fiercest battles of the Western theater of the American Civil War. In early December 1862, the transfer of Confederate Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner had created a vacancy for a division command in Braxton Bragg's Army of the Tennessee. There was no man in that Army who could breath a word against the promotion of Patrick Ronayne Cleburne to that post, nor the promotion to major general that went with it. Usually the months of December and January were quiet times, with soldiers in winter camps, but Federal Gen. William S. Rosecrans intended to drive Bragg's army from Tennessee, winter or no. Bragg awaited his advance along Stone's River, just west of Murfreesboro. On the morning of the 31st, Cleburne's division was on the Confederate left. Attacking at dawn, Cleburne fell on the corps of Federal Gen. Alexander McCook, which held the Federal right, and drove the corps from the field. Federal Gen. Thomas Crittenden, observing from a distance, said it was the first time the Army of the Cumberland had ever seen such panic. A second line was formed by the Federals, but Cleburne's men drove them as well. They continued to drive the enemy until they ran out of ammunition and energy. Later, Confederate Corps commander William Hardee expressed his belief that if a fresh division had followed up Cleburne's, Rosecrans entire army would have been routed. Night fell, however, and the two armies brought in the New Year sleeping on their arms. Rosecran's army was badly whipped, but it stayed put on January 1st. Bragg was cautious and only probed to discover if the Federals were still there. The Federals had fortified their position to the west of the river, in front of Cleburne; Bragg decided to attack them east of the river. This attack, by Breckinridge, was successful at first, but was then met by 58 Federal artillery pieces and shredded. Bragg would retreat the next day. Though his army had abandoned the field, Cleburne's performance in his first battle as a major general had been outstanding. His eventual rise to corps command seemed certain, but factors away from the battlefield would prevent that.

Courtesy of the New York Public Library
A drawing of the British siege lines at Charleston in 1780.


DEARDAOIN -- On January 4, 1781, Irish-born Revolutionary War Gen. James Hogan died in British captivity at Haddrel Point, South Carolina. Hogan (sometimes spelled Hogun) was born in Ireland about 1721, and emigrated to North Carolina about 30 years later. In May 1776, Hogan was appointed a major in the militia of the Edenton and Halifax regions of the Southern state. In November, when North Carolina decided to raise three more regiment for George Washington's Continental Army, James Hogan was appointed colonel of one of them, the 7th North Carolina. Hogan's regiment fought in Pennsylvania at Brandywine and also at Germantown, where Hogan was cited for "distinguished intrepidity." Hogan was sent back to North Carolina to help recruit four new regiments. He returned to Washington's army in August 1778, and was promoted brigadier general five months later. Hogan served at West Point and as commander of Continental troops in Philadelphia. In November 1779, he was sent south in command of the North Carolina Brigade to the aid of General Charles Lincoln. Lincoln was facing an anticipated British assault at Charleston, South Carolina. The march south, through one of the worst winters ever, was a severe one; Hogan's numbers were reduced by the time he reached Charleston on March 3, 1780. Before the end of the month, British General Clinton's men were besieging the city. The Americans, though outnumbered more than two to one, had a few successes during the siege, one was a trench raid led by Hogan on April 24. But soon they were running low on food and ammunition. At a council of war May 11, the decision was made to surrender. The surrender the following day was one of the worst American defeats of the war -- more than 2,500 men became British prisoners. The British hastily built a prison on Haddrel's Point to hold the prisoners, but the site was incomplete and conditions were harsh. Generals McIntosh, Lincoln and Scott, and other high-ranking officers accepted parole from the British and departed. But generals Moultrie and Hogan refused, preferring to stay with their men. The British were trying to recruit colonial soldiers to serve them in the West Indies. Hogan feared some of his men might weaken if he departed. He did this in spite of flagging health. As winter set in, Hogan's condition worsened. On January 4, 1781, he passed away and was buried near the prison. Like so many other Irish born soldiers before and after him, James Hogan had given his last full measure of devotion to his adopted country.

AOINE -- On Jan. 5, 1871, the British in a general amnesty released 30 Fenian prisoners. Most of these prisoners were men who had either been swept up the British in 1865, when they suppressed the Fenian paper, The Irish People, taken part in the March 1867 rising, or been rounded up after the 'Smashing of the Van' rescue of Kelly and Deasy in September 1867. The British penal system of that time was brutal under normal circumstances, and the Fenians came in for much harsher treatment than the normal inmate did. Those Fenians still on the outside agitated constantly for the release of their comrades. The man most responsible for the release of 1871 was John 'Amnesty' Nolan, who thus earned his sobriquet. The names of many of the men released by William Gladstone's government are well known to those who have studied the Irish Republican movement. One of them was Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, as steadfast an enemy of English rule in Ireland as any who ever lived. After Rossa's death his body was returned to Ireland for burial, and his funeral in 1915 included the famous eulogy by Patrick Pearse, one of the seminal moments in the renewal of armed struggle for Irish freedom. Another Fenian released that day was John Devoy, who perhaps more than any other man would keep the struggle for Irish freedom alive among Irish exiles in America. The British government released the Fenians on condition that they exile themselves to the country of their choice and not return until their sentences had expired. Many chose to go to Australia, but Rossa, Devoy, John McClure, Henry Mulleda and Charles Underwood O'Connell, who had all been imprisoned together, chose to go to America and shipped together from Liverpool on board the Cuba. The so-called Cuba Five arrived in New York to a hero's welcome from the city's large Irish community and even received a resolution of welcome from the U.S. House of Representatives.

VOICES

'Gen. Cleburne has been a Brigadier under my command for about a year, and he has given unmistakable proofs of military talent of a high order. He unites the rare qualities of a strict disciplinarian, a brave and skillful leader and a popular commander.'
-- Part of Gen. William Hardee's recommendation for Patrick Cleburne's promotion to division command.

'All day long …. Sweeny's Hotel and the approaches to it were the scene of the most lively excitement, caused by the congregation of numerous sympathizers. The green flag was flying from the highest flagstaff on the roof of the hotel.'
-- The New York Herald describing the excitement created by the arrival of the Cuba Five in New York in January 1871.

Dónall O'Sullivan
From 'The History of Ireland' by Abbe Mac Geoghegan.

"Treacy had stated to me that the only way of starting a war was to kill someone, and we wanted to start a war, so we intended to kill some of the police whom we looked upon as the foremost and most important branch of the enemy forces ... The only regret that we had following the ambush was that there were only two policemen in it, instead of the six we had expected..."
       
-- Dan Breen on the Soloheadbeg ambush.

'Hurra! For Freedom!' Came from our van;
'Hurra! For Freedom! Our swords - we'll feed 'em!'
Then down we crashed, Through the wild ford dashed,
And the fray began!

Horses to horses and man to man,
O'er dying horses and blood and corpses
O'Sullivan, our general, thundered;
And we not slack to slay at his back,
'Til the flight began.

        -- From a poem by Dr. Joyce about one of the many fights during "O'Sullivan's March," this one against the son of Viscount Barry at Bellaghy Ford.

"The firing was terrific, fairly shaking the ground, and so rapid that it seemed to be one continuous roar, intermingled with the spiteful flashing from the mouths of guns, and dense clouds of smoke soon hung over the two fleets....."
        -- Julius Hubbell, a witness to the Battle of Plattsburgh

'Gen. Cleburne has been a Brigadier under my command for about a year, and he has given unmistakable proofs of military talent of a high order. He unites the rare qualities of a strict disciplinarian, a brave and skillful leader and a popular commander.'
-- Part of Gen. William Hardee's recommendation for Patrick Cleburne's promotion to division command.

December - Nollaig

BIRTHS

31, 1744 – Edward Hand (General, American Revolution, Clyduff, Co. Offaly.)
31, 1783 - Thomas Macdonough, U.S. Naval war hero, "The Trap," Delaware

January - Eanáir

1, 1818 - William Gamble (Union General - Co. Tyrone)
1, 1883 - William "Wild Bill" Donovan (Medal of Honor winner, head of the OSS - Buffalo, NY)
4, 1581 - James Ussher (Scholar and Archbishop of Armagh - Dublin)
ury, MA.)
6, 1794 - Frances Ball (Mother Mary Teresa - Founder of the Sisters of Loretto - Dublin)
6, 1898 - Colonel James Fitzmaurice (Aviator - Dublin)

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

31, 1602 - Dónall Beare O'Sullivan begins his long march to Ulster.
31, 1759 – Brewery is leased at St. James Gate, Dublin by Arthur Guinness.
31, 1776 – Irish-born General Richard Montgomery of the Continental Army is killed at the Battle of Quebec.
31-Jan 2, 1862-63 - Irish-born Confederate Gen. Patrick Cleburne commands a division at battle of Murfreesboro (Stones River), TN.ormed.

January - Eanáir

1, 1776 - Irish-born General Richard Montgmery of the Continental Army is killed at the Battle of Quebec.
1, 1801 - Act of Union - Ireland and Great Britain form United Kingdom
1, 1892 - Ellis Island becomes reception center for new immigrants (The first immigrant through the gates is Annie Moore, 15, of Co. Cork.)
1, 1921 – The South Monaghan Flying Column ambushes a 4 man RIC patrol in Ballybay. One constable was killed and three were wounded.
1, 1957 - Sean South and Feargal O'Hanlon killed during an attack on an RUC Barracks in the County Fermanagh village of Brookeborough.
2, 1602 - Spanish force in Ireland surrender to the English at Kinsale.
2, 1743 - William O'Shaughnessy, general in the French army, dies at Gravelines.
2, 1794 - William Bulkely, officer in the Irish Brigade of France, is guillotined during the French Revolution.
2, 1920 - The Black and Tans are formed.
3, 1946 - Nazi broadcaster William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) is executed by Great Britain.
3, 1966 - Marguerite Higgins, journalist and war correspondent, dies.
4, 1781 - Irish born U.S. Revolutionary War Gen. James Hogan dies in British captivity.
4, 1792 - First issue of Northern Star, organ of United Irishmen published in Belfast.
4, 1918 – Irish Volunteers in Donegal rush a train at Meenbanad and free two prisoners.
4, 1925 - Cork native Nellie Cashman: Frontier Angel, gold miner, and pioneer of the American West, dies of pneumonia in Victoria, British Columbia.
4, 1969 - Civil rights marchers attacked at Burntollet Bridge, NI.
5, 1777 - Irish-born Stephen Moylan is appointed colonel in the Continental Army.
5, 1871 - 30 Fenian prisoners are released by the British in a general amnesty.
5, 1885 - Hugh O'Brien is sworn in as Boston first Irish mayor.
6, 1562 - Shane O'Neill submits to Queen Elizabeth, but rebels again within months.
6, 1653 - English law declares any Roman Catholic priest found in Ireland to be guilty of treason.
6, 1968 - Patrick Henry Brady (Medal of Honor) rescues 51 soldiers under heavy enemy fire near Chu Lai, Republic of Vietnam.

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Tags: American Civil War, Irish Freedom Struggle, Military History, On This Day, United States

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